Are we living in a computer simulation? Many people think so

In recent years, the Simulation Hypothesis has captured the imagination of scientists, philosophers, and the general public alike. This intriguing concept suggests that what we perceive as reality could be an advanced digital simulation.


This hypothesis is not just a staple of science fiction. It actually has roots in philosophical inquiries and is influenced by rapid advancements in technology.

What is the Simulation Hypothesis?

The Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality, including the earth and the universe, is in fact an artificial simulation created by an advanced civilization. While this may sound like science fiction, the notion that human existence might be a simulation has gained traction among some philosophers, futurists, and technologists in recent years.

The concept was first explored in depth by philosopher Nick Bostrom in a 2003 academic paper titled “Are You Living in a Computer Simulation?

Bostrom made a probabilistic argument that if advanced civilizations are capable of creating complex simulations inhabited by simulated conscious entities, then there is a significant chance that we exist within one such simulation.

The seeds of the Simulation Hypothesis originated earlier, with sci-fi stories like The Matrix depicting characters existing inside a simulated reality generated by AI. But Bostrom framed the concept in a rigorous, philosophical manner that sparked serious debate on the likelihood that human reality is simulated.

Though inconclusive, his statistical reasoning made a compelling case that we should not dismiss the possibility we exist within an ancestor simulation created by posthuman civilization.

While the Simulation Hypothesis cannot be definitively proven or disproven with current knowledge and technology, it raises profound questions about the nature of existence, reality, and our place in the cosmos.


The notion that our world might be artificially simulated forces us to reconsider assumptions about the limits of science, technology, and our understanding of the universe.

Theoretical support for Simulation Hypothesis

The Simulation Hypothesis has gained traction in recent years based on mathematical arguments stemming from quantum physics and information theory.

The basic premise is that if it is possible for sufficiently advanced civilizations to create complex simulated worlds, then it is more likely we are living in one of the many simulations rather than the original “base reality.”

Bostrom argued in his paper that at least one of the following propositions is likely true:

1) Human civilization goes extinct before reaching the posthuman stage capable of running complex simulations

2) Posthuman civilizations have little interest in running simulations

3) We are almost certainly living in a simulation

The implication is that if advanced civilizations have both the ability and desire to run complex ancestor simulations, then simulated worlds could vastly outnumber the original reality.


From a physics standpoint, some theorists point to limits on our ability to probe reality at microscopic scales as possible evidence that we are in a simulation. The quantized nature of fields and particles, discreteness of spacetime, and the uncertainty principle may emerge naturally from a simulated reality.

However, they seem to be counterintuitive features of a fundamental description of nature. While inconclusive, some argue this points in the simulation direction.

In support of the theory, others focus on the exponential trend in computing power and technology’s ability to mimic reality in virtual worlds. If this trend continues, then in the distant future simulated worlds should far surpass the “base level” of physical reality.

This leads to a statistical likelihood that we are living in one of the many virtual worlds rather than a “base” reality. While a fascinating concept, the Simulation Hypothesis remains highly speculative and difficult to test scientifically. The theoretical support however prompts intriguing philosophical debates about the ultimate nature of reality.

Tech billionaires’ views

Several influential tech billionaires have expressed interest in or support for the Simulation Hypothesis. Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla and SpaceX, is one of the most vocal advocates. In 2016, he estimated the odds that we are NOT living in a computer simulation at “one in billions.” Musk believes advanced civilizations would use simulations to explore their history.

Peter Thiel, PayPal co-founder and early Facebook investor, has shown interest in the hypothesis as well. At a 2016 conference, Thiel said the simulation hypothesis explains the high number of unlikely events that have shaped history.


Other tech leaders open to the idea include Sam Altman, CEO of OpenAI (ChatGPT), astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson, and Paul Gilding. Their interest often stems from the immense technological advances made in virtual reality and artificial intelligence.

With the exponential growth of computing power, creating convincing simulations seems increasingly possible. Still, many of these leaders admit the hypothesis cannot be proven either way with current knowledge and technology.

Much more progress in fields like quantum computing would be needed to test it thoroughly. Their openness highlights that even top industry experts cannot completely rule out the possibility we live in an advanced simulation.

Brain in a vat scenario

The brain in a vat thought experiment proposes an alternate reality where brains are maintained in a vat and connected to a supercomputer that feeds them a simulated virtual reality. In this scenario, the brain would have no knowledge that it is just floating in a vat and not actually perceiving the real world.

All sensory inputs to the brain would come from the computer simulation. Even the brain’s own sense of having a body is just part of the illusion. Philosophically, this raises the question – how can we be sure we are not just brains in vats, with all of our perceived reality being an artificial simulation?

Some theorists argue there is no conclusive way to disprove the brain in a vat scenario. The simulated reality could be programmed to seem as real and consistent as the actual physical world. In fact, if the simulation is good enough, even scientific experiments intended to detect anomalies in reality may be fooled.


The brain in a vat argument is relevant to simulation theory because it establishes the difficulty, if not impossibility, of proving whether we are in a simulation or not. If advanced future civilizations did develop extremely high fidelity simulated realities, the people inhabiting them may have no detectable way of discerning simulation from reality.

Evidence FOR Simulation Hypothesis

Some scientific observations have been interpreted as evidence that we could be living in an artificial reality. Here are some key examples:

Quantum mechanics

he theory of quantum mechanics describes subatomic particles behaving in strange, unpredictable ways. Some argue this could be because our reality is simulated and small glitches occur at the smallest scales.

Astrophysical measurements

Astrophysicists have calculated fundamental physical constants, like the speed of light or the mass of protons, that seem finely tuned to allow for life in our universe. This fine-tuning resembles how parameters are set in simulations.

Computational limits

There seem to be limits to how finely we can measure and divide space and time. This could be because we live in a pixelated matrix with a finite resolution, much like a video game.


Simulation argument

As mentioned previously, philosopher Nick Bostrom made a statistical argument that at least one of these must be true: 1) humanity goes extinct before reaching a post-human stage, 2) post-human civilizations lose interest in creating simulations, or 3) we are almost certainly living in a simulation.

Anecdotal evidence

Some report experiencing glitches or déjà vu in reality, interpreting these as artifacts of a simulation. However, these experiences are subjective and prone to cognitive biases.

While intriguing, each observation has alternative explanations not requiring a simulated reality. More research is needed to conclusively demonstrate we live in a simulation. Absent direct evidence, the Simulation Hypothesis remains philosophically interesting but scientifically unproven.

Evidence AGAINST Simulation Hypothesis

The Simulation Hypothesis, while intriguing, has some major flaws worth considering. Several logical and scientific arguments challenge the likelihood we are living in an ancestor simulation.

First, creating such a complex simulation would require astronomical computing power and energy far beyond what humans can currently achieve. The processing capability needed to generate a simulation indistinguishable from base reality appears infeasible now or in the foreseeable future.

While computing does continue to advance rapidly, the scale of advancement needed to simulate complex consciousness and reality itself remains distant.


Additionally, there is the question of motivation. Why would an advanced civilization want to create such a simulation, and how likely is it that a civilization advanced enough to do so would choose to?

The hypothetical rationale behind creating an ancestor simulation, such as for research or entertainment purposes, fails to provide a convincing case such a simulation would actually be commissioned.

The Simulation Hypothesis also raises difficult philosophical questions about consciousness and reality. If base reality is just a simulation, what created that higher level of reality and so on?

The proposition that consciousness and reality could be simulated suggests existence itself has an uncertain ontological foundation. This philosophical dilemma of infinite regression makes the simulation hypothesis difficult to ground convincingly.

Current knowledge of physics, computation, consciousness, and reality offers several challenges to the likelihood we are living in an ancestor simulation. While future discoveries may shed new light, at present the simulation hypothesis remains philosophically intriguing but scientifically uncertain.

Implications if Simulation Hypothesis is TRUE

If the Simulation Hypothesis turned out to be true, it would have profound implications for our understanding of reality, consciousness, and what it means to be human.

At a philosophical level, it would call into question our most basic assumptions about the nature of existence. Are we “real” beings with free will, or just characters in an elaborate video game? Is there a higher power controlling the simulation? Do we have souls, or are we just bits of code?


These ancient questions about the meaning of life and our place in the universe would need to be re-examined.

For society, the revelation may be incredibly destabilizing at first. Major religions would struggle to adapt their teachings about God and the afterlife to the idea that reality is synthetic. People may feel confusion, anxiety, depression or an existential crisis upon learning their world isn’t “authentic.”

However, the simulation theory doesn’t necessarily mean life is meaningless. We’d still have our human experiences of love, joy, relationships and more. In fact, some may find comfort knowing there is order in the universe, even if it’s digital. Our simulated lives could still have beauty, purpose and value.

With time, society may adapt to this new paradigm. But it would fundamentally change how we see ourselves and our place in the cosmos.

We would be faced with difficult questions about the nature of our simulated reality, and have to reorient our perspectives, goals and priorities. Our curiosity about the world would likely be renewed as we seek to understand the broader context we find ourselves in.

Testing the Simulation Hypothesis

One approach to testing the Simulation Hypothesis is looking for evidence of computational shortcuts or limits in our universe that may reveal it is simulated.

For example, testing for a pixelation effect at the Planck scale could reveal the discrete units of space and time in our reality. Researchers have also proposed detecting anomalies in cosmic rays that could be artifacts of the computation process.


Testing quantum physics in extreme conditions may reveal divergences from expected real world behavior that expose our reality as a simulation. Approaches include using powerful lasers or the Large Hadron Collider to probe high-energy particle collisions to look for signatures left by the programmers.

Some thought experiments also suggest ways to test the hypothesis. For example, if reality is simulated, presumably there are limited computing resources which could be revealed by reaching the bounds of what is possible to compute in our universe.

Proposed tests include advanced civilizations attempting increasingly complex computations looking for the point where they fail in an unanticipated way.

Of course, negative results from these kinds of simulation tests don’t disprove the hypothesis, since it may be that limits or artifacts are absent or beyond our ability to detect. But positive evidence would lend credence to the idea that our reality is simulated. Further research and creativity is needed to devise more rigorous ways to test the simulation hypothesis.

Ethical concerns abound

While the Simulation Hypothesis raises fascinating philosophical questions, there are risks associated with fully believing or seeking to prove we live in a simulation.

First, convincing oneself that reality is not “real” could lead to nihilistic attitudes, depression, or reckless behaviors without concern for consequences. If life is just a simulation, does anything we do really matter?


Second, aggressively seeking to test or “break out” of the simulation, if one exists, could have catastrophic unintended consequences. We do not fully understand the nature of our perceived reality, let alone the motives and capabilities of potential simulator creators. Meddling with the foundations of reality could put humanity at risk.

Finally, evidence that our world is simulated could cause massive social upheaval and shifts in how humans relate to meaning, identity, and purpose. The transition could be very psychologically and culturally destabilizing.

While the Simulation Hypothesis is fascinating, we should exercise caution in how deeply we allow it to shape our worldview and behaviors. Believing in a simulated reality could negatively impact mental health and relationships.

Efforts to test the simulation’s boundaries may endanger humanity. And proving the world is simulated could undermine social stability. Any exploration of this topic should be grounded in ethics and wisdom.

Final thoughts

The Simulation Hypothesis presents an intriguing philosophical question about the nature of our reality. While we may never know for sure if our universe is a sophisticated simulation, examining the proposal leads to fascinating lines of inquiry.

The possibility that we exist within an ancestor simulation forces us to reconsider our assumptions about the physical world and our own consciousness. Some find this notion disturbing or even nihilistic, while others argue embracing the idea could make us more empowered. Either way, contemplating that we may inhabit a simulation opens up new perspectives.


Yet, just because we can imagine our reality is simulated does not make it necessarily so. Critical examination of the evidence reveals flaws in using it to conclude we exist in an ancestor simulation.

We have no way to quantify the actual probability, which remains speculative. Assertions that we live in a simulation should therefore be treated with healthy skepticism.

Perhaps someday we may find more definitive ways to test the Simulation Hypothesis. For now, our limited observable evidence makes it difficult to conclusively prove or disprove. While the concept may fuel thought experiments in philosophy and science fiction stories, it remains largely in the realm of conjecture rather than established fact.

In summary, the Simulation Hypothesis underscores how much remains unknown about the fundamental nature of existence. We are still unraveling mysteries about the universe and our own minds. This profound question about the simulated nature of reality illustrates how much more we have left to explore and understand about our world.

Author: Eric Ralls

Upcoming Retreats

  • Jun  4 — Jun 12
  • Jul  9 — Jul 19
  • Aug  14 — Aug 22
  • Sep  17 — Sep 25
  • Nov  5 — Nov 15

Journey with us

Browse our gallery

Subscribe to our Newsletter

Articles, videos, books, quotes, retreat updates, and more...